Thursday, 8 October 2015

Pastoralists in the Modern World

Q.1. Why were some forests classified as "protected"?
(a)  In these the customary grazing rights of pastorals were granted but their movements were severely restricted.
(b)  The colonial officials believed that grazing destroyed the saplings and young shoots of trees that germinated on the forest floor.
(c)  Both (a) and (b) (d)  None of the above
Q.2. Life of the pastoral groups were sustained by
(a)  Correct judgement of how long the herds could stay in one area, know where to find water and pasture
(b)  Correct calculation of timing, their movements and ensuring they could move through territories
(c)  Setting up relationship with farmers on the way, so that the herds could graze
(d)  All the above
Q.3. In what ways lives of Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir similar to that of Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh?
(a)  They both have a similar cycle of seasonal movement
(b)  They both spend their winters on low hills of Siwalik range, grazing their herds in dry scrub forests
(c)  In April, they begin their upward journey again for their summer grazing grounds
(d)  All the above
Q.4. The title Maasai derives from ______________  and two special features of this tribe are
(a)  The word in Maa 'Maasai' means 'My People'
(b)  They are nomadic and pastoral, and depend on milk and meat for subsistence
(c)  High temperature and low rainfall have made their land dry, dusty, and extremely hot with droughts being a common feature.
(d)  All the above
Q.5. Which of these are the pastoral communities of the mountains?
(a)  Gujjars              (b) Gaddis (c)  Bhotiyas and Sherpas                (d) All the above
Q.6. The continuous movement of the pastoral communities helps in
(a)  recovery of the pastures                               (b) prevention of their overuse
(c)  reduction in the demand of houses             (d) both (a) and (b)
Q.7. The social changes in Maasai society are that
(a)  the  traditional  difference  based  on  age,  between  the  elders  and  warriors,  has  been disturbed, but it has not broken down
(b)  a new distinction between the wealthy and the poor pastoralists has developed
(c)    both (a) and (b) (d)   none of the above
Q.8. Pastoralists were found in the
(a)  plateaus                   (b) plains                      (c)   deserts                    (d) all the above
Q.9. Dhangars were an important pastoral community of
(a)  Gujarat                    (b) Maharashtra            (c)   U.P.                        (d) Assam
Q.10. Which crop was sown by the Dhangars in the central plateau of Maharashtra?
(a)  Bajra                        (b) Jowar                      (c) Rice                         (d) Wheat
Q.11. By October, the Dhangars harvested their bajra and started on their move to the west.
Why were they welcomed by the Konkani peasants?                                  
(a)  They married off their children in each other's communities
(b)  The Dhangars brought bajra for them
(c)  Dhangar flocks manured their fields and fed on the stubble
(d)  None of the above
Q.12. What was the reason of the seasonal rhythms of the movement of Gollas, Kurumas and Kurubas?
(a)  Cold and the snow                                       (b) Monsoon and dry season
(c)  Both (a) and (b)                                            (d) None of the above
Q.13. Where were the Banjaras found?
(a)  Uttar Pradesh        (b) Punjab, Rajasthan   (c)  Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra       (d) All the above
Q.14. Where did the community of Raikas live?
(a)  In the deserts of Rajasthan                          (b) Along the western coastal areas
(a)  In the Rann of Kachchh                               (b) In Maharashtra
Q.15. Why did the colonial state want to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms?
(a)  Land revenue was one of the main sources of its finance
(b)  It could produce more jute, cotton, wheat and other agricultural produce that were required in England
(c)  Both (a) and (b) (d)  None of the above
Q.16. Since when were the 'Wasteland Rules' implemented in various parts of the country?
(a)  17th century            (b) early 18th century  (c) mid-19th century    (d) late 19th century
Q.17. According to the 'Wasteland Rules'
(a)  uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals
(b)  these individuals were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands
(c)  some of them were made headmen of villages in the newly cleared areas
(d)  all the above
Q.18. Through the Forest Acts, some forests which produced timber like deodar or sal were declared 'Reserved'. What did that mean?
(a)  They were reserved for the pastoralists
(b)  No pastoralist was allowed access to these forests
(a)  Some particular pastoral communities only were allowed access to them
(b)  None of the above
Q.19. In which way did the Forest Acts change the lives of the pastoralists?
(a)  In  the  areas  of  forests  where  the  pastoralists  were  allowed,  their  movements  were regulated
(b)  They needed a permit for entry
(c)  The timing of their entry and departure was specified
(d)  All the above
Q.20. Gujjar Bakarwals are pastoralists belonging to which region?
(a)  Himachal Pradesh                                         (b) Jammu and Kashmir
(c)  Bihar                                                              (d) Madhya Pradesh
Q.21. The pastoralists had to pay tax on
(a)  every animal they grazed on the pastures   (b) the houses they were living in
(c)  number of animals they had                        (d) none of the above
Q.22. When was the right to collect the tax auctioned out to contractors?
(a)  In 1800                                                          (b) Between the 1850s and 1880s
(c)  In 1900                                                          (d) In the 1920s
Q.23. What was the result of overgrazing pastures due to restrictions on pastoral movements?
(a)  The quality of pastures declined (b)  This created deterioration of animal stock
(c)  Underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcity and famine (d)  All the above
Q.24. In which year could the Raikas no longer move into Sindh?
(a)  After 1871              (b) In the 1880s           (c) In 1928                    (d) After 1947
Q.25. Which of the following statements is/are correct?
(a)  Some rich pastoralists started buying land and settling down giving up their nomadic life
(b)  Some became settled peasants cultivating land, others took to more extensive trading
(c)  The poor pastoralists became labourers, working on fields or in small towns
(d)  All the above
Q.26. Half of the world's pastoral population lives in
(a)  South America        (b) South Asia              (c) Africa                      (d) North America
Q.27. Which of these are the pastoral communities of Africa?
(a)  Bedouins, Berbers  (b) Maasai, Somali      (c) Boran, Turkana       (d) All the above
Q.28. Where do the Maasai cattle-herders live?
(a)  East-Africa              (b) Namibia                  (c) Zambia                    (d) Libya
Q.29. In 1885, Massailand was cut into half with an international boundary between
(a)  Kenya and Tanganyika                                 (b) Kenya and Ethiopia
(c)  Congo and Angola                                        (d) Angola and Botswana
Q.30. What  was  the  percentage  of  land  lost  by  Maasais  as  a  result  of  the  division  of
Maasailand?
(a)  10%                         (b) 25%                        (c) 35%                         (d) 60%
Q.31. Which of these statements is true?
(a)  Large areas of grazing land were turned into game reserves
(b)  Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves
(c)  Serengeti National Park was created over 14,760 km of Maasai grazing land
(d)  All the above
Q.32. The nomadic cattle herders of Kaokoland belonged to
(a)  Namibia                   (b) Zambia                    (c) Zimbabwe               (d) South Africa
Q.33. When did a severe drought take place, killing over half the cattle in the Maasai Reserve?
(a)  1900                        (b) 1933 and 1934 more (c) 1945                     (d) 1946 and 1947
Q.34. In pre-colonial period, the African society was divided into
(a)  elders and warriors                                       (b) priests and warriors
(a)  agriculturists and industrialists                     (b) none of the above
Q.35. How was the authority of both elders and warriors adversely affected by the British efforts to administer the affairs of the Maasai?
(a)  The British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of Maasai (b)  These chiefs were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe (c)  The British imposed various restrictions on raiding and warfare (d)  All the above
Q.36. With the passage of time, what was the position of the Maasai chiefs?
(a)  They had regular income with which they could buy animals, goods and land. (b)  In times of war and famine, they lost nearly everything
(c)  They did not have resources to tide over bad times
(d)  Some eked out a living as charcoal burners, others did odd jobs
Q.37. Which of these statements is not true?
(a)  Pastoralists are a matter of past now
(b)  Pastoralists have tried to adapt to new times
(c)  They have changed the paths of their annual movement
(d)  They have demanded a right in the management of forests and water resources
Q.38. What are Bugyals?                                                                                                
(a)  They are wastelands                                         (b) Pastures in the mountain's foot area
(c)  Pastures above 12000 feet high mountains     (d) They are deserts
Q.39. Which seasonal movements affect the Dhangars of Maharashtra?              
(a)  Cold and snow                                              (b) Climatic disturbance
(c)  Drought and flood                                        (d) Alternate monsoon and dry seasons
Q.40. Which  one  of  the  following  communities  is  a  pastoral  community  of  Jammu  and Kashmir?
(a)  Gaddi                       (b) Bhotiyas                  (c) Dhangars                 (d) Gujjar Bakarwals
Q.41. Gaddi were an important pastoral community of:                                          
(a)  Gujarat                    (b) Maharashtra            (c) Himachal Pradesh   (d) Chchattisgarh
Q.42. What are Dhars?                                                                                                  
(a)  High meadows        (b) Deep valleys           (c) Fertile plains           (d) Desert land
Q.43. Nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another because of:          
(a)  Seasonal changes                                          (b) In search of pastures
(c)  To maintain ecological balance                   (d) All the above
Q.44. Who are Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnaris?                                                        
(a)  Pastoral community of Africa                      (b) Cattle herders of Rajasthan
(c)  Shepherd community of Maharashtra          (d) Pastoral communities of the Himalayas
Q.45. The word Maasai means:                                                                                    
(a)  my people               (b) pasture land            (c) shifting cultivation  (d) wasteland
Q.46. In pre-colonial times Maasai society was divided into:                                  
(a)  Elders and youngsters                                   (b) Elders and workers
(c)  Elders and warriors                                      (d) None of these
Q.47. Raika pastoral community belongs to:
(a)  Himachal Pradesh   (b) Rajasthan                (c) Jammu and Kashmir    (d) Maharashtra
Q.48. Where is the Samburu National Park located?                                                
(a)  South Africa            (b) Sudan                      (c) Kenya                      (d) Tanzania
Q.49. Which state do Gujjar Bakarwals belong to:                                                    
(a)  Himachal Pradesh   (b) Jammu and Kashmir  (c)  Maharashtra          (d) Gujarat
Q.50. Where is Serengiti Park located?                                                                      
(a)  Kenya                      (b) Zanzibar                  (c) Johannesberg           (d) Tanzania
Q.51. In which year did the colonial government in India pass the Criminal Tribes Act?
(a)  1861                        (b) 1869                        (c) 1871                        (d) 1873
Q.52. Which of the following is true regarding the annual movement of Dhangars?
(a)  They stay in the Central Plateau during the monsoons.
(b)  After the monsoons are over they move towards Konkan area.
(c)  With the onset of monsoon they leave the Konkan. (d)  All the above
Q.53. Which of the following is not a African pastoral group?                              
(a)  Bedouin                   (b) Somali                     (c) Boran                       (d) Kuruma
Q.54. Which of the following statements best explains pastoralist nomads?          
(a)  The villagers who move from one place to another
(b)  The people who do not have a permanent place to live in
(c)  The herdsmen who move from one place to another looking for pasture for their herd
(d)  The people who visit many places for enjoyment
Q.55. The continuous movement of the pastoral community helps in:                  
(a)  recovery of pasture                                       (b) commercial activity
(c)  reduction in demand of houses                    (d) none of the above

1.(c), 2.(d), 3.(d), 4.(d), 5.(d), 6.(d), 7.(c), 8.(d), 9.(b), 10.(a), 11.(c), 12.(b), 13.(d), 14.(a), 15.(c), 16.(c), 17.(d), 18.(b), 19.(d), 20.(b), 21.(b), 22.(b), 23.(d), 24.(d), 25.(d), 26.(c), 27.(d), 28.(a), 29.(a), 30.(d), 31.(d), 32.(a), 33.(b), 34.(a), 35.(d), 36.(a), 37.(a), 38.(c), 39.(d), 40.(d),41.(c), 42.(b), 43.(b), 44.(d), 45.(a),46.(c), 47.(b), 48.(c) , 49.(b), 50.(d), 51.(c), 52.(b), 53.(d), 54.(c), 55.(a)

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