Rocks - Combinations of homogeneous substances called minerals
Geologists classify minerals on the basis of colours, hardness, crystal forms, luster and density
Ores - accumulation of nay mineral mixed with other elements
Forms in which Minerals occur -
In Igneous and Metamorphic rocks, minerals occur in cracks, crevices, faults or joints. Smaller occurances or called veins, larger are lodes. Metallic minerals - tin, copper, zinc and lead
In sedimentary rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. Formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. Coal, some forms of iron ore, gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt. Formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions.
The decomposition of surface rocks, removal of soluble constituents leavs a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite
Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills are called 'placer deposits', minerals, which are not corroded by water. Gold, silver, tin and platinum
Ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals. Common salt, magnesium and bromine
“India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources.”
Peninsular rocks contains coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals.
Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
Rajasthan has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.
Alluvial plains of north India are almost devoid of economic minerals.
Variations exist largely because of the differences in the geological structure, processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.
Imp. : Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.
Magnetite, the finest iron ore, content of iron up to 70 per cent, has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry.
Hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used, iron content 50- 60 per cent
The major iron ore belts :
Odisha-Jharkhand belt: high grade hematite ore, in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts. Singbhum district of Jharkhand, is mined in Gua and Noamundi.
Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur: In Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Very high grade hematites, Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Has the best physical properties needed for steel making. Is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam port.
Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru belt : In Karnataka, Kudremukh mines, a 100 per cent export unit. One of the largest in the world. Is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangaluru.
Maharashtra-Goa belt : Goa and Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra. Exported through Marmagao port.
Imp. : Used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. In manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.
Area : Odisha, the largest producer of manganese ores in India. Accounted for one-third of the country's total production in 2000-01.
Reserves and production is not very satisfactory. Play a vital role in a number of metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries.
Copper - India deficient in the reserve and production of copper.
Imp. : Malleable, ductile. good conductor - used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.
Areas - Leading producers are Balaghat mines (M.P), Khetri (Rajasthan), Singhbhum (Jharkhand).
Bauxite - Aluminium is extracted from Bauxite.
Imp. : Combines the strength of metals such as Iron, extreme lightness, good conductivity and great malleability.
Areas : Amarkantak Plateau, Maikal Hills, Plateau regions of Bilaspur-Katni. Odisha, largest producing state. Pachpatmali deposits in Koraput District.
Mica : Made up of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into thin sheets. Mica can be clear, black, green, red yellow or brown.
Imp. : Excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries.
Area : In the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya - Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer. Ajumer in Rajasthan, Nellore of Andhra Pradesh Rock Minerals
Limestone : is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.
CONSERVATION OF MINERALS
Why - Strong dependence of industry and agriculture upon mineral deposits
Total volume of workable mineral deposits is an insignificant fraction
Rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption. Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable.
Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs, with decrease in quality.
How - Use mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner.
Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved
Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes
Energy is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries. Conventional sources of energy include: firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity (both hydel and thermal). Non-conventional sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy.
Conventional Sources of Energy
Coal Most abundant available fossil fuel. Provides a substantial part of the nation’s energy needs Types : Peat, Lignite, Bituminous, Anthracite
Rock series of two main geological ages Gondwana - 200 million years. Found in Damodar, Godavari, Mahanadi, Son & Wardha valley Tertiary - 55 million years. Found in Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh & Nagaland
Petroleum Is the next major energy source in India after coal. Provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries. Petroleum refineries act as a "nodal industry" for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries.
Areas : 63 per cent of India's petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam. Ankeleshwar, the most important field of Gujarat. Assam, the oldest oil producing state. Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oil fields in the state.
Natural Gas - An important clean energy resource. Used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry. Environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions, the fuel for the present century.
Reserves - In the Krishna- Godavari basin, Mumbai High, Gulf of Cambay, Andaman and Nicobar islands
The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur - Jagdishpur gas pipeline. This artery, an impetus to India's gas production. The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas. Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG ) for vehicles
Electricity- Its per capita consumption is considered as an index of development. Is generated mainly in two ways: by running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity; and by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power.
Non-Conventional Sources of Energy - Growing consumption of energy has resulted in rising prices of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas and their potential shortages. Increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems.
Nuclear or Atomic Energy - Obtained by altering the structure of atoms. Uranium and Thorium, which are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan are used for generating atomic or nuclear power. The Monazite sands of Kerala is also rich in Thorium.
Solar Energy - India is a tropical country, has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. Will minimise the dependence of rural house holds on firewood and dung cakes, which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.
Wind power - The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country.
Biogas - Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used. Higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, dung cake and charcoal. Plants using cattle dung are known as 'Gobar gas plants' in rural India. Provide twin benefits to the farmer in the form of energy and improved quality of manure.
Tidal Energy - Gulf of Khambhat, Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat, Sunderban regions of W.Bengal
Geo-Thermal Energy - Heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth. Parvati valley near Manikaran in HP and Puga valley in Ladakh
Conservation of Energy Resources-
Using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles; switching off electricity when not in use, using power -saving devices and using non-conventional sources of energy