Thursday, 9 July 2015

Forest, Society & Colonialism

MCQ on Forest, Society & Colonialism
History Chapter
Class IX
Q.1. The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up in :
(a)  Dehradun                 (b) Delhi                       (c) Calcutta                   (d) Kanpur
Q.2. This river                           flows through Bastar.
(a)  Ganga                      (b) Indus                       (c) Indrawati                 (d) None of these
Q.3. Java was                          colony.
(a)  French                     (b) English                    (c) Dutch                       (d) None of these
Q.4. Sarnas ar                          .
(a)  Sacred groves         (b) Forests                    (c) Grasslands               (d) None of these
Q.5. The Forest Act meant severe hardship for the villagers across the country, because : (a)  Cutting wood, grazing cattle, collecting fruits, roots, hunting and fishing became illegal 
        (b)  People were forced to steal and if caught, they had to pay bribes to the forest guards (c)  Women who collected firewood were harassed by guards
(d)  All the above
Q.6. Shifting cultivation was banned by the Government in India because :
(a)  European foresters regarded this practice as harmful for the forests
(b)  When a forest was burnt there was the danger of flames spreading and burning valuable timber
           (c)  It also made it harder for the government to calculate taxes
(d)  All the above

Q.7. How did the American writer Richard Harding justify the conquest of Honduras in   Central America?
(a)  The Central Americans were semi-barbarians, who failed to understand the value of their land
(b)  Uncultivated land had to be taken over by the colonisers and improved (c)  Land could not be allowed to remain unimproved with its original owner (d)  All the above

Q.8. Why does the story of the forests and people of Bastar not end with the rebellion of 1910?
(a)  Practice  of  keeping  people  out  of  the  forests  and  reserving  them  for  industrial  use continued even after Independence
(b)  The World Bank proposed that 4,600 hectares of national sal forest should be replaced by tropical pine for paper industry. It was scrapped later.
(c)  Both (a) and (b) (d)  None of the above

Q.9. Which of the following problems were faced by the people of Bastar under the colonial government?
(a)  People of villages were displaced without any notice of compensation
(b)  Villagers suffered from increased rents, frequent demands for free labour and goods by colonial officials
(c)  Terrible famines in 1899-1900, 1907 and 1908 (d)  All the above

Q.10. About how much percentage of the worlds total forest area was cleared between 1700 and 1995?
(a)  9%                           (b) 9.3%                       (c) 20.5%                      (d) 30%

Q.11. How much of Indias landmass was under cultivation in 1600?
(a)  One-sixth                 (b) One-third                (c) Two-third                 (d) Half

Q.12. What was the ‘scorched earth’ policy followed by the Dutch in Java during the First and the Second World Wars?
(a)  Dutch weapons were destroyed on the land of Java
(b)  The earth was exploited further to grow more trees
(c)  Huge piles of giant teak logs were burnt and saw mills destroyed
(d)  None of the above
Q.13. What was the policy followed by the British in India towards forests during the First and the Second World Wars?
(a)  The forest department cut trees freely to meet British war needs
(b)  Cutting of trees was strictly prohibited for everyone, including the British
(c)  More and more trees were planted to give employment to Indians
(d)  None of the above
Q.14. How have some of the dense forests survived across India from Mizoram to Kerala?
(a)  Villagers have protected them in sacred groves
(b)  Some villagers have been patrolling their own forests
(c)  By strict patrolling of forest officers
(d)  Both (a) and (b)
Q.15. Out of three categories, which forests were regarded as the best?
(a)  Reserved forests     (b) Protected forests    (c) Village forests         (d) Both (a) and (b)
Q.16. The new forest laws changed the lives of forest dwellers in yet another way. What was it?
(a)  The forest laws prohibited people from hunting animals
(b)  The people could not build houses in the forest areas (c)  Women were not allowed to work in the forest areas (d)  None of the above
Q.17. Large areas of natural forests were also cleared to make way for which of these?
(a)  Tea plantations        (b) Coffee plantations  
(c) Rubber plantations  (d) All the above
Q.18. During the colonial period, the British directly encouraged the production of which of these crops?
(a)  Jute                          (b) Sugar and wheat    
(c) Cotton                      (d) All the above
Q.19. Which of these trade regulations in colonial India had serious effects on pastoralist and nomadic communities?
(a)  Many communities became slave labours in tea and coffee plantations
(b)  Some of them were called criminal tribes
(c)  Grazing and hunting were restricted and many communities lost their livelihood
(d)  All the above
Q.20. Why did the cultivated area in India rise between 1880 and 1920?
(a)  The British directly encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugarcane, wheat and cotton
(b)  Forests were considered to be wilderness. They had to be cultivated to yield agricultural products and revenue
            (c)  The growing urban populations in Europe needed more crops and more raw materials                   for industry
(d)  All the above
Q.21. The British believed that by killing dangerous animals, the British would civilise India.
What did they do to encourage these killings?
(a)  They gave rewards for killing tigers, wolves and other large animals
(b)  Over 80,000 tigers, 150,000 leopards and 200,000 wolves were killed during 1875-1925 alone
(c)  Gradually the tiger came to be seen as a sporting trophy
(d)  All the above
Q.22. Which of the following problems were faced by the tribal communities from Assam, Jharkahand, Chhattisgarh etc?
(a)  Stopping of ‘shifting cultivation’ had left them without a source of earning
(b)  In tea plantations their wages were low and conditions of work were very bad
(c)  They could not return easily to their home villages from where they had been recruited
(d)  All the above
Q.23. Where is Bastar located?
(a)  Southernmost part of Chhattisgarh              (b) In central Jharkhand region
(c)  In Andhra Pradesh                                        (d) None of the above
Q.24. What were ‘forest villages’?
(a)  ‘Reserved forests’ where some villagers were allowed to stay
(b)  Forests which were cut down to make new villages
(c)  Villages where forests were to be grown
(d)  None of the above
Q.25. Who was Gunda Dhur?
(a)  A rebel of Java                                             (b) First Inspector General
(c)  A leader of Santhal rebellion                       (d) A leader of Dhurwa tribe
Q.26. What was the result of the rebellion by the Dhurwas?
(a)  The British sent troops to suppess the rebellion
(b)  Work on reservation was temporarily suspended
(c)  Area to be reserved was reduced to roughly half of that planned before 1910 (d)  All the above
Q.27. Who were the colonial power in Indonesia?
(a)  British                      (b) Dutch                      (c) French                     (d) Portuguese
Q.28. Which place is now famous as a rice-producing island in Indonesia?
(a)  Java                         (b) Sumatra                   (c) Borneo                     (d) Kalimantan
Q.29. Where did the Dutch start forest management in Indonesia?
(a)  Java                          (b) Sumatra                   
(c) Bali                          (d) None of the above
Q.30. Who were ‘Kalangs’ of Java?
(a)  Dynasty of rulers                    (b) Skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators
(c)  A community of moneylenders                    (d) None of the above
Q.31. The Kalangs resisted the Dutch in
(a)  1700                        (b) 1750                        (c) 1770                        (d) 1800
Q.32. According to the forest laws enacted by the Dutch in Java,
(a)  villagers’ access to forest was restricted
(b)  wood could be cut only for specified purposes like making river boats or constructing houses
(c)  villagers were punished for grazing cattle
(d)  all the above
Q.33. What was the system of ‘blandongdiensten’?
(a)  A system of education                 (b)  Industrialisation
(c)  First imposition of rent on land and then exemption
(d)  None of the above
Q.34. What  did  Surontiko  Samin  of  Randublatung  village,  a  teak  forest  village,  begin questioning?
(a)  The foreign policy of the Dutch                  (b) State ownership of the forest
(c)  The export policy of the Dutch                   (d) None of the above
Q.35. What was the policy followed by the British in India towards forests during the First and the Second World Wars?
(a)  The forest department cut trees freely to meet British war needs
(b)  Cutting of trees was strictly prohibited for everyone, including the British
(c)  More and more trees were planted to give employment to Indians
(d)  None of the above
Q.36. What is the goal of governments across Asia and Africa since the 1980s?
(a)  Conservation of forests                            (b)  Collection of timber
(c)  Settling people in forest areas
(d)  Destroying old forests and growing new ones
37. Who wrote the book ‘The Forests of India’ in the year 1923?
(a)  David Spurr            (b) E.P. Stebbing          (c) Verrier Elvin           (d) John Middleton
38. Which of the following is not associated with swidden agriculture?              
(a)  Karacha                   (b) Jhum                       (c) Bewar                      (d) Penda
39. Indian Forest Service was set up in the year:                                                    
(a)  1865                        (b) 1864                        (c) 1854                        (d) 1884
40. Which of the following was not a tribal community?                                       
(a)  Karacha                   (b) Jhum                       (c) Korava                     (d) Yerukula
41. The system of scientific forestry stands for:                                                       
(a)  system  whereby  the  local  farmers  were  allowed  to  cultivate  temporarily  within  a plantation
(b)  system of cutting old trees and plant new ones
(c)  division of forest into three categories
(d)  disappearance of forests
42. In which year the Bastar rebellion took place?                                                  
(a)  1910                        (b) 1909                        (c) 1911                         (d) 1912
43. In South-East Asia shifting agriculture is known as:                                        
(a)  Chitemene               (b) Tavy                        (c) Lading                     (d) Milpa
44. The Gond forest community belongs to which of the following?                    
(a)  Chhattisgarh            (b) Jharkhand               (c) Jammu and Kashmir    (d) Gujarat
45. Forests consisting of which type of trees were preferred by the Forest Department?
(a)  Forests having trees which provided fuel, fodder and leaves
(b)  Forests having soft wood
(c)  Forests having trees suitable for building ships and railways
46. Which of the following term is not associated with shifting agriculture in India?
 (a)  Penda                       (b) Bewar                     (c) Khandad                  (d) Lading
     47. Which of the following is a community of skilled forest cutters?                   
(a)  Maasais of Africa                                         (b) Mundas of Chotanagpur
(c)  Gonds of Orissa                                            (d) Kalangs of Java
48. Why did the government decide to ban shifting cultivation?                           
(a)  To grow trees for railway timber
(b)  When a forest was burnt, there was the danger of destroying valuable timber
(c)  Difficulties for the government to calculate taxes
(d)  All the above reasons
49. Wooden planks laid across railway tracks to hold these tracks in a position are called:
(a)  Beams                      (b) Sleepers                  (c) Rail fasteners          (d) None of these
50. Which of the following was the most essential for the colonial trade and movement of goods?      
 (a)  Roadways                (b) Railways                 (c) Airways                   (d) Riverways
51. Which of the following is a commercial crop?                                                   
(a)  Rice                         (b) Wheat                     (c) Cotton                      (d) Corn
52. Colonial rulers considered forests as unproductive because:                            
(a)  the forests were not fit for habitation         (b) forest had wild grown trees only
(c)  forest did not yield revenue to enhance income of the state
(d)  forests were full of wild animals
53. Who were the colonial power in Indonesia?                                                       
(a)  British                      (b) Dutch                      (c) French                     (d) Portuguese
54. Java is famous for:                                                                                                  
(a)  Rice production      (b) Mining industries   (c) Huge population    (d) Flood and famines
55. Latex can be collected from which of the following trees?                              
(a)  Rubber tree             (b) Eucalyptus tree       (c) Pine tree                  (d) Deodar tree
56. Who among the following led the forest revolt in Bastar?                               
(a)  Siddhu                     (b) Birsa Munda           (c) Kanu                        (d) Gunda Dhur
57. Villagers wanted forests to satisfy their following needs:                                 
(a)  Fuel, fodder and shelter                               (b) Fuel, fodder and fruit
(c)  Fuel, fodder and cultivation                         (d) Fuel, fodder and minerals

1.    1. (a), 2. (c), 3(c), 4(a),5(d), 6(d),7(d),8(c),9(d),10(b),11(a),12.(c),13.(a),14.(d),15.(a),16.(a),17.(d),18.(d),19.(d),20.(d),21.(d),22(d),23(a),24.(a), 25.(d), 26.(d), 27.(b), 28.(a), 29.(a), 30.(b), 31.(c), 32.(d), 33.(c), 34.(b), 35.(b), 36.(a), 37.(b), 38.(a), 39.(b), 40.(b), 41.(b), 42.(a), 43.(c), 44.(a), 45.(c), 46.(d), 47.(d), 48.(b), 49.(b), 50.(b), 51.(c), 52.(c), 53.(b), 54.(a), 55.(a), 56.(d), 57.(b),

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