Friday, 15 May 2015

The Age of Industrialisation

1. Before the Industrial Revolution
Proto Industrialisation - large scale production,
                                       for an international market,
                                       not based on factories
Merchants Started moving towards countryside -
                                the demand for goods began growing
                                urban craft and trade guilds present in towns
                                      Trade Guilds - maintained control over production
                                                              restricted entry of new people
                                                              rulers granted them monopoly
Poor peasants and artisans began working for merchants -
                             Open fields and commons were disappearing
                             Not sufficient land to provide work to all members of the family
                             Merchants offered advances
                             Could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate
                             their small plots
Relationship developed between town and the countryside -
Merchants in the town - wool stapler - spinner - weaver - fullers - dyers - finishing work in London

1.1 The Coming up of the Factory
                    Series of inventions in the eighteenth century (Richard Arkwright
                    created the cotton mill)
                    Costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained
                    only in the mills
                    Better supervision
1.2 The Pace of Industrial change - was slow
       Cotton was the leading sector up to the 1840's, from the 1860s demand for
       Iron & Steel increased
       New industries could not easily displace traditional ones
       Ordinary and small innovations were the basis of growth
       Technological changes occurred slowly
2. Hand Labour and Steam Power - Industrialists preferred hand labour
                             No problem of labour shortage or high wage cost
                             Seasonal industries
                             Demand in the market for goods with intricate designs and
                             specific shapes
                             Handmade goods came to symbolize refinement and class
2.1 Life of the Workers
                         was miserable, had to spend nights under bridges or night refuges
                         seasonality of work lead to poverty and unemployment
                         women started attacking on spinning jenny
                         after the 1840s new employment opportunity opened up

3. Industrialization in the Colonies
3.1 The Age of Indian Textiles - India produced finer varieties of cotton textiles
                                                     Flourishing trade both on land as well as sea route
                                                     Surat (Gujarat), Masulipatnam (Coromandal) and
                                                     Hoogly in Bengal
Old Ports declined and new one rose
              With the rise of European companies, old ports declined and
               the new ones emerged
              Exports fell, credit dried up and bankers went bankrupt
              Surat & Hoogly decayed. Bombay and Calcutta grew
              Was an indicator of the growth of Colonial power
3.2 What hapenned to Weavers
              The East India Company established its control over Indian trade
                        Eliminated the competition
                                           defeated the other foreign powers
                                           taxes on local trade
                        Appointment of Gomastha to procure regular supplies
                                           offered advances to weavers
                                           took away all the production
 Clashes between weavers and Gomasthas
               weavers had to lease out the land and devout all time to weaving
               Gomasthas had no relation with weavers
               they acted arrogantly, often punished weavers for delay in supply
               weavers lost space of bargaining
3.3 Manchester comes to India
            By the 19th century exports from India declined, Imports has risen
                             British government impost import duties on cotton textiles
                             East India company forced to sell Manchester goods in India
Problems faced by Indian weavers
                             Tough competition from Manchester goods
                             Could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton
                             Competition from Indian factories

4. Factories Come up
4.1 The Early Entrepreneurs
      Dwarkanath Tagore, Dinshaw Petit, Jametjee Nusserwanjee Tata, Seth Hukumchand, Birlas
From where they managed their capital
                      were the junior players in the opium trade with China
                      Traded with Burma, Middle East and East Africa
                      Operated within India
Problems faced - Barred from trading in Manufactured goods
                            European Managing Agencies controlled a large sector of Indian
                            Decision making in European hands
                            Not allowed to join Chamber of Commerce
4.2 Where did the Workers came from
               Most industrial workers came from the districts around
               Many moved between village and the city, returning to their village
               homes during harvests and festivals
               Workers traveled great distances from United Provinces
                to Bombay & Calcutta
Jobber - employed by industrilists to get new recruits, got people from village, ensured them jobs, helped them in crisis. Often demanded money and gifts in return

5. The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth
    European Managing Agencies invested in Plantations, Mining, Indigo and Jute
    Early cotton mills in India produced cotton yarn rather than fabric
    Swadeshi movement promoted Indian industries. 1906 onward
    Indian Industrialists began shifting from yarn to cloth
Impact of First World War on Indian Industries
            Imports into India declined, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply
            New factories came up, old ran multiple shifts. Workers were made to
            work for larger hours
            After the war Manchester could never recapture its old position
            in the Indian market,
            Local industrialists gradually consolidated their position
5.1 Small Scale Industries Predominate
                 Large industries formed only a small segment of the economy
                 Handicraft production expanded in the Twentieth century
                 Handicraft people adopted new technology that improved production
                 without excessively pushing up costs
Certain groups of weavers were in a better position than others
                Demand of consumer cloth fluctuated violently,
                weavers producing coarser cloth were affected severely
                Weavers producing finer varieties were in a better position

6. Markets for Goods
                     Labels like 'Made in Manchester'
                     Images of Indian Gods and Goddesses
                     Calenders were used
                     Figures of important personages
                     Indian manufacturers promoted nationalist message

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