Monday, 24 December 2012

Class IX -Democratic Rights

Questions within the Lesson

Page No. 97
Q.1. Chapter one: Chile under Pinochet and Poland under Jaruzelsky were not democratic because ......
Chapter Two: A comprehensive definition of democracy includes ....
Chapter Three: Our constitution makers believed that fundamental rights were quite central to the constitution because ....
Chapter Four: Every adult citizen of India has the right to ... and to be ....
Chapter Five: If a law is against the Constitution, every citizen has the right to approach .....
Ans. Chapter One : Chile under Pinochet and Poland under Jaruzelsky were not democratic because they did not grant freedom of speech and expression to its people and did not hold free and fair elections regularly.
Chapter Two : A comprehensive definition of democracy includes a government of the people, elected periodically by universal adult franchise through free and fair elections. The will of the people is supreme in a democracy.
Chapter Three : Our Constitution makers believed that fundamental rights were quite central to the constitution because they were committed to universal adult franchise, right to freedom and equality and to protecting the rights of the minorities.
Chapter Four : Every adult citizen of India has the right to vote and to be elected.
Chapter Five : If a law is against the constitution, every citizen has the right to approach the courts.

Page No. 98
Q.2. If you were a Serb, would you support what Milosevic did in Kosovo? Do you think this project of establishing Serb dominance was good for the Serbs?
Ans. I would oppose it. This kind of eminence would recoil on the Serbs themselves as it would make them very unpopular. It did. The Albanians overthrew Milosevic and he died in a prison. He would always be remembered for his brutality and terror.

Page No. 100
Q.3. What are the examples of elected governments not protecting or even attacking the rights of their own citizens? Why do they do that?
Ans. Examples of Pinochet in Chile; Mugabe of Zimbabwe, Milosevic in Kosovo, Saddam Hussein in Iraq. They do that so that they can remain in power by terrorising the minorities and their own people.

Page No. 101
Q.4. Everyone knows that the rich can have better lawyers in the courts. What is the point in talking about equality before law?
Ans. The lawyers, however brilliant, do not decide the case. It is the judge who does so, and so far judiciary has shown that it is impartial and gives fair justice.

Page No. 103
Q.5. Should the freedom of expression be extended to those who are spreading wrong and narrow-minded ideas? Should they be allowed to confuse the public?
Ans. No. They should be warned or punished. Freedom of expression does not allow one to encroach on other people’s freedom or hurt their feelings, create confusion or conflict.

Page No. 106
Q.6. The constitution does not give people their religion. Then how can it give people the right to practice their religion?
Ans. Our constitution does not favour any religion. It is secular. The constitution is not concerned with the relation between human beings and God. It is only concerned with relations among human beings, so it has given the people the right to practice, profess, propagate their religion. It only safeguards that this freedom is not misused.

Page No. 107
Q.7. Can the President of India stop you from approaching the Supreme Court to secure your fundamental rights?
Ans. No. It is the fundamental right granted by the constitution. The President has to abide by the laws of the constitution.

Page No. 109
Q.8. Are these rights only for adults? Which of these rights are available to children?
Ans. (i) Compulsory education given free to every child till the age of 14. That is school education is compulsory. 
(ii) Child labour is not allowed by the constitution. Children under the age of 14 cannot be employed in dangerous occupations. Example, mines, factories, etc.

Questions  in the Exercise
Q.1. Which of the following is not an instance of the exercise of a fundamental right?
(a) Workers from Bihar go to Punjab to work on the farms.
(b) Christian missions set up a chain of missionary schools.
(c) Men and women government employees get the same salary.
(d) Parents’ property is inherited by their children.
Ans. (d) Parents’ property is inherited by their children.

Q.2. Which of the following freedoms is available to an Indian citizen?
(a) Freedom to criticise the government
(b) Freedom to participate in armed revolution
(c) Freedom to start a movement to change the government
(d) Freedom to oppose the central values of the constitution
Ans. (a) Freedom to criticise the government.

Q.3. Which of the following rights is available under the Indian Constitution?
(a) Right to work (b) Right to adequate livelihood
(c) Right to protect one’s culture (d) Right to privacy
Ans. (c) Right to protect one’s culture.

Q.4. Name the Fundamental Right under which each of the following rights falls :
(a) Freedom to propagate one’s religion (b) Right to life
(c) Abolition of untouchability (d) Ban on bonded labour
Ans. (a) Right to Freedom of Religion (b) Right to Freedom
(c) Right to Equality (d) Right Against Exploitation.

Q.5. Which of these statements about the relationship between democracy and rights is more valid? Give reasons for your preference.
(a) Every country that is a democracy gives rights to its citizens.
(b) Every country that gives rights to its citizens is a democracy.
(c) Giving rights is good, but is not necessary for a democracy.
Ans. (b) Unless the people are given the right to choose and vote freely their representative in the government, the country cannot have a democracy. A true a democratic country is called only when the citizens choose their government or representatives.

Q.6. Are these restrictions on the Right to Freedom justified? Give reasons for your answer.
(a) Indian citizens need permission to visit some border areas of the country for reasons of security.
(b) Outsiders are not allowed to buy property in some areas to protect the interest of the local population.
(c) The government bans the publication of a book that can go against the ruling party in the next elections.
Ans. (a) It is justified. The security of a country is the first duty of a government, and it can stop people from visiting the border areas.
(b) This action is also justified. The local population may not be financially strong to protect its interests. Outsiders can take away their rights in their own area, so the government’s step is right.
(c) No, this is not justified. The publication of a book can only be banned if it disturbs peace or hurts the sentiments of a section of people, and not on grounds of protecting the ruling party’s prospects in the next elections.

Q.7. Manoj went to a college to apply for admission into an MBA course. The clerk refused to take his application and said, “You, the son of a sweeper, wish to be a manager! Has anyone done this job in your community? Go to the municipality office and apply for a sweeper’s position.” Which of Manoj’s fundamental rights are being violated in this instance? Spell these out in a letter from Manoj to the District Collector.
Ans. The following rights are being violated.
1. Right to Equality :  Everyone is equal in the eyes of the law. No one can be denied admissions on grounds of birth. The person is practicing “untouchability” in an indirect way, and this is an offence in the eyes of law. His right to opportunity is also being violated.
2. Right to Freedom : Manoj has a right to apply for any job anywhere as long as he is qualified for it.
These two points should be pointed out in your letter to the District Collector.

Q.8. When Madhurima went to the property registration office, the Registrar told her, “You can’t write your name as Madhurima Banerjee d/o A.K. Banerjee. You are married, so you must give your husband’s name. Your husband’s surname is Rao. So your name should be changed to Madhurima Rao.” She did not agree. She said, “If my husband’s name has not changed after marriage, why should mine?” In your opinion who is right in this dispute? And why?
Ans. There is no law which states that a woman can own property in her married name only. The constitution gives equal right to both men and women. So if Madhurima wants to give her maiden name, though married, she has the right to do so. The Registrar is being traditional.

Q.9. Thousands of tribals and other forest dwellers gathered at Piparia in Hoshnagabad district in Madhya Pradesh to protest against their proposed displacement from the Satpura National Park, Bori Wildlife Sanctuary and Panchmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary. They argue that such a displacement is an attack on their livelihood and beliefs. Government claims that their displacement is essential for the development of the area
and for protection of wildlife. Write a petition on behalf of the forest dwellers to the NHRC, a response from the government and a report of the NHRC on this matter.
Ans. (a) Letter from Tribals to NHRC can include these points
i. Government’s proposal is a violation of human rights.
ii. It is taking away their right to live, right to follow their beliefs.
iii. For centuries the forests have been their means of livelihood.
iv. They have practised their rituals here.
v. No alternative has been suggested to them.
vi. Nothing has happened to the wildlife, so why this sudden interest?
vii. Displacement would cause untold misery to them, their families, children and their future.

(b) Response from the Government may include these points
i. The government had given a warning to the people two years ago.
ii. There has been an alarming rise in poaching, cutting of trees and killing of wildlife.
iii. Environmental pollution has also increased.
iv. It is the government’s duty to protect the endangered species.
v. The government has offered compensation and promised rehabilitation in alternative places.
vi. Offered jobs to the men.

NHRC’s Report may include these points
i. Both sides have a point.
ii. The Tribals have tradition, practice and decades of residence behind them. It is their world and life.
iii. Sudden uprooting will leave them emotionally disturbed, turn them into vagabonds and force them into jobs or occupations which they have never followed.
iv. The Government is right in its concern for wildlife. It is its duty to save certain species from becoming extinct. Poachers are having a field day, and every day the environment is threatened.
Suggestions : Transfer should be slow, not sudden. First, shelter and occupation should be provided to all the people. Education should be the primary concern. Only through education can the younger generation take to the new environment and occupation. Not one family should be rendered homeless and without means of occupation.

Write these points in three different letters.

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