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Wednesday, 22 August 2012
Questions Within The Lesson
Q.1. What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming methods?
Ans. Difference between Multiple Cropping and Modern Farming :
Multiple cropping and modern farming are two ways of increasing production from the same
piece of land. Under multiple cropping, production is increased by growing more than one crop
on a piece of land during the year. It is the most common way of raising agricultural
Under modern farming method, production is increased by using modern technology in
place of traditional agricultural practices. Under this method, high yielding varieties (HYVs)
of seeds are used in place of simple seeds. HYV seeds promise to produce much greater
amounts of grain on a single plant. Again, chemical fertilisers are used in place of cow dung
and other natural manures.
Q.2. The following table shows the production of wheat and pulses in India after the Green
Revolution in units of million tonnes. Plot this on a graph. Was the Green Revolution
equally successful for both the crops? Discuss.
Table 1.2 : Production of pulses and wheat
Production of Pulses Production of Wheat
1965 – 66 10 10
1970 – 71 12 24
1980 – 81 11 36
1990 – 91 14 55
2000 – 01 11 70
Ans. Graph showing production of pulses and wheat.
The graph clearly shows that Green Revolution was more successful in wheat crop. In fact,
there was nothing like Green Revolution in case of pulses.
Q.3. What is the working capital required by the farmer using modern farming methods?
Ans. Working capital required by the farmer using modern farming includes the following :
(i) HYV seeds (ii) Chemical fertilisers (iii) Pesticides
(iv) Water (v) Diesel (vi) Cash or money in hand
Q.4. What kind of farming methods — modern or traditional or mixed do the farmers use?
Write a note.
Ans. In India, some farmers (mainly large farmers) use modern methods of farming. Farmers of
Punjab, Haryana and western U.P. use these methods. However, small and marginal farmers
all over the country still use traditional methods of cultivation. However, some of them have
begun to use better seeds, chemical fertilisers, etc. In fact, we find farmers using modern
methods along with the farmers who still use traditional methods.
Q.5. What are the sources of irrigation?
Ans. (i) Canals (ii) Tubewells (iii) Tanks
A majority of the farmers in India continue to depend on rains as source of irrigation.
Q.6. How much of the cultivated land is irrigated? (very little/nearly half/majority/all)
Ans. Nearly half.
Q.7. From where do farmers obtain the inputs that they require?
Ans. Farmers obtain the required inputs from the traders.
Q.8. Why are farm labourers like Dala and Ramkali poor?
Ans. Both Dala and Ramkali are among the poorest people in village Palampur.
Dala is a landless farm labourer who works on daily wages. He fails to get regular work in
the fields because of mechanisation of agriculture.
Similarly, Ramkali hopes to get lesser work even during the harvesting season this year. Last
year she worked for less than five months in the entire year. Due to past debt, the village
moneylender has refused to give her any more loan.
So Dala and Ramkali are poor.
Q.9. Gosaipur and Majauli are two villages in north Bihar. Out of a total of 850 households
in the two villages, there are more than 250 men who are employed in rural Punjab and
Haryana or in Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Hyderabad or Nagpur. Such migration is common
in most villages across India. Why do people migrate? Can you describe (based on your
imagination) the work that the migrants of Gosaipur and Majauli might do at the place
Ans. Some people (250 in number) of Gosaipur and Majauli have migrated to the rural areas of
Punjab, Haryana, Mumbai, Nagpur etc. The migrants are employed by the large farmers of
these regions either as regular workers or as daily wage workers.
Q.10. What does Tejpal Singh do with his earnings?
Ans. Tejpal Singh — a large farmer of the village — deposits most of his earnings in the bank. Then
he uses this accumulated money for lending to poor farmers like Savita. He also uses this
money to arrange for the working and fixed capital for cultivation.Q.11. (a) What capital did Mishrilal need to set up his jaggery manufacturing unit? Who
provides the labour in this case?
(b) Can you guess why Mishrilal is unable to increase his profit?
(c) Could you think of any reasons when he might face a loss?
(d) Why does Mishrilal sell his jaggery to traders in Shahpur and not in his village?
Ans. (a) Sugarcane crushing machine and sugarcane.
(b) Mishrilal is unable to increase his profit because of high price of sugarcane.
(c) He might face a loss when —
(i) sugarcane price rises further (ii) demand for jaggery declines
(d) Mishrilal sells his jaggery to traders in Shahpur because he gets a better price.
Q.12. (a) In what ways is Kareem’s capital and labour different from Mishrilal’s?
(b) Why didn’t someone start a computer centre earlier? Discuss the possible reasons.
Ans. (a) Mishrilal’s capital is used to produce jaggery (gur), while Kareem’s capital is used in the
production of service. Similarly, Mishrilal employs unskilled labour, whereas Kareem has
employed technically trained workers.
(b) There was no computer centre in the village before that of Kareem. Also, there were no
degree-holders in computer applications in the village before. Moreover, computer has
become a popular subject only in the recent years.
Q.13. (a) What is Kishora’s fixed capital?
(b) What do you think would be his working capital?
(c) In how many production activities is Kishora involved?
(d) Would you say that Kishora has benefitted from better roads in Palampur?
Ans. (a) Kishora’s fixed capital includes — a buffalo, wooden cart.
(b) Kishora had a loan from the bank which could be his working capital.
(c) Kishora is involved in the following activities :
(i) He works as a farm labourer
(ii) Dairying is another activity. He sells baffalo’s milk.
(iii) He is also involved in transport activity.
(d) Yes, because he is involved in transport activity.
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